Messinger proposes two guiding principles “to advance the discourse about balancing universalism and particularism in the 21st century.” First, she suggests moving beyond the binary and embracing hybridity. Quoting Rabbi Hirsch, she writes, “We must forget the views and prejudices that we inherited about Judaism. Instead we must turn to the sources of Judaism… because Judaism, correctly conceived and conveyed, constitutes a bond of love and justice encompassing all creatures.” Second, she suggests valuing productive discomfort. She asks, “Can we be comfortable with Jewish expressions, opinions, and obligations that look and feel unfamiliar when we see people who derive deep meaning from them? Or, if we are uncomfortable, can we hold that discomfort while also seeing value in the meaning that people find in these expressions?” In conclusion, she proposes that, “all of us, moving through a messy world and grappling with the unfamiliar, share the responsibility of inheriting a complex history and shaping our collective future.”

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